Cocoa。 Cocoa Uses, Benefits & Dosage

cocoa

In cocoa, the polyphenols of particular interest are flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids, which are in turn a subclass of polyphenols. The Aztec beverage was made from sun-dried shelled , probably fermented in their pods. A nonlinear dose response was observed with low to moderate chocolate consumption, but not high dose, associated with a reduced risk of heart failure HR, 0. Recent Examples on the Web Place milk, cocoa powder and sugar in a small saucepan. Cocoa containing between 30—1,218 mg of flavanols can reduce blood pressure by an average of 2 mmHg. Cocoa contains more than 300 volatile compounds, the most important flavor components being aliphatic esters, polyphenols, aromatic carbonyls, and theobromine which also prevent rancidity of the fat. These polymers are known as procyanidins. Numerous intervention trials have shown that consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products can improve endothelial function, , , , vascular function, , and insulin sensitivity; as well as attenuate platelet reactivity, , , , , and reduce blood pressure. Near Hotels• Use of chocolate as an inhaler has been studied. Animal studies have shown that cocoa extract can reduce both the constriction of the airways and tissue thickness. The paste, formed into small cakes, was cooled and hardened on shiny leaves placed under a tree. However, no significant differences were observed in glucose and insulin responses with administration of a 100 g flavanol-rich dark chocolate bar for 3 days versus a white chocolate bar with trace polyphenols in 12 healthy volunteers in a randomized, blind, crossover trial. A study that followed changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate demonstrated that one area of the brain is involved when there is motivation or craving to eat chocolate, while another area is involved when the desire to eat chocolate is decreased or becomes unpleasant. A high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms has also been recorded in workers exposed to cocoa. Dosing No specific dosing recommendations can be made. Popular Amenities• The characteristically bitter taste of cocoa is generated by the reaction of diketopiperazines with theobromine during roasting. Additionally, the effect was greater in people who already had high blood pressure than those without it and in older people compared to younger people. In a third study, just 25 g of semisweet chocolate bits containing 200 mg flavanols and procyanidins produced a reduction in platelet-related hemostasis in healthy people. The European Food Safety Authority recommends 0. In another study, a half-maximal, flow-mediated dilation 2 hours after consumption was achieved with 616 mg total flavanols. Studies are needed to test the importance of this activity related to eating disorders and obesity. Claus and reindeer are off; no hot cocoa or cookie samples this year, either, for safety's sake. The beans, removed from the pods with their surrounding pulp, are accumulated in leaf-covered heaps, in leaf-lined holes dug in the ground, or in large shallow boxes having perforated bottoms to provide for. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. Clinical data A study in which a depressive mood was induced demonstrated a correlation with an increase in chocolate craving. A similar result also has been shown with cocaine craving. A study using functional magnetic imaging in healthy young people found that ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with increased cerebral blood flow suggesting that cocoa may play a role in the treatment of cerebral impairment, including dementia and stroke. Studies in humans have shown that flavanol-rich diets are associated with a decrease in cancer risk. , In a study of 470 elderly men, blood pressure was measured at baseline and then 5 years later, with causes of death ascertained during 15 years of follow-up. Despite these promising results, there are inconsistencies in the research with some studies finding only a limited effect, slightly worse control of diabetes or no effect at all , ,. , , In animals, cocoa butter has been shown to be comedogenic; however, this has not been proven in humans. The N-acylethanolamines found in chocolate and cocoa powder may act indirectly by inhibiting breakdown of endogenously produced anadamine, prolonging a "natural high. The active group had lower P-selectin expression and lower ADP-induced aggregation and collagen-induced aggregation than did the placebo group. Cocoa may be allergenic and has caused occupational asthma in confectionery factory workers. Additionally, flavanols influence the production of nitric oxide, which relaxes the muscles of your blood vessels, improving blood flow and blood supply to your brain ,. However, because polyphenols can be destroyed during processing, some products may actually have a low polyphenol content. 5 for cardiovascular mortality and 0. The use of cocoa to treat or prevent magnesium deficiency in humans has not been explored. Polyphenols are naturally occurring antioxidants found in foods like fruits, vegetables, tea, chocolate and. The broken kernels, or nibs, were roasted in earthen pots and then ground to a paste in a concave stone, called a metate, over a small fire. Popular Dishes• Nevertheless, these results combined with the more concrete positive effects on heart health indicate cocoa polyphenols may have a positive impact on both preventing and controlling diabetes, though more research is required. However, one randomized trial demonstrated that supplementation of chocolate with calcium 0. , , , Two of these studies provide data specific to the effects of cocoa. Toxicology Cocoa is nontoxic when ingested in typical confectionery amounts. A review of nine studies in 157,809 people found that higher chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of heart disease, stroke and death. It also promotes healthy skin by protecting it from sunlight and improving circulation, the skin surface and hydration. After cocoa diets, the mean systolic blood pressure was 4. Abrupt withdrawal of caffeine-containing cocoa may increase serum lithium levels. An in vitro study showed that breast cancer cells are selectively susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of cocoa-derived pentameric procyanidin and suggest that inhibition of cellular proliferation by this compound is associated with the sire-specific dephosphorylation or down-regulation of several cell cycle regulatory proteins. Adverse effects more common in the flavanol-rich intervention groups included GI complaints and distaste of the product. Because there have been very few dose-response studies, it is difficult to estimate the amount of chocolate necessary for an antioxidant effect. Natural cocoa butter and cocoa beans. No other biomarkers were significantly affected by epicatechin. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. In a study evaluating the effect of cocoa ingestion on modulated human platelet activation and primary hemostasis, cocoa consumption suppressed ADP- or epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation and platelet microparticle formation, and had an aspirin-like effect on primary hemostasis. Cocoa butter, also known as theobroma oil, may have a faint chocolate odor that can be removed following further purification. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes obstruction and inflammation of the airways and can be life-threatening ,. Fun ways to add cocoa to your diet include:• White chocolate had no effect on flow-mediated dilation. Summary Cocoa may exert some positive effects on mood and symptoms of depression by reducing stress levels and improving calmness, contentment and overall psychological well-being. The quality of the data in the update was downgraded from high to moderate due to unexplained heterogeneity among the trials. Popular Neighborhoods• Near Landmarks• Summary Cocoa and dark chocolate may reduce your risk of diabetes and maintain healthy blood sugar levels. They have been linked to numerous health benefits, including reduced inflammation, better blood flow, lower blood pressure and and blood sugar levels. Similar conclusions were noted in the 2017 updated meta-analysis that added 17 trials to the review for a total of 1,804 mainly healthy participants. Additionally, a weight loss study using low-carbohydrate diets found that a group given 42 grams or about 1. Several studies have found that polyphenols, such as those in cocoa, may reduce your risk of neurodegenerative diseases by and blood flow. ' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. — You may be reminded of mole by this sauce that includes cocoa powder, lime zest, orange juice and ground allspice. Theobromine is produced commercially from cocoa husks. 4 ounces 10 grams of high-flavanol chocolate in your diet. However, there are some conflicting results in the scientific evidence, so more research is needed. Furthermore, another study discovered that drinking high-polyphenol cocoa improved calmness and contentment. In one study, rats infected with oral bacteria that were given cocoa extract had a significant reduction in dental cavities, compared to those given only water. 9 grams of this compound per 100 grams or 3. However, more research is needed on this topic to determine exactly what type and how much cocoa is ideal. Findings were similar in another study of 32 healthy subjects who consumed 234 mg of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins or placebo per day for 28 days. The fruits are borne on the trunk and branches, with the seeds imbedded in a sticky pulp. Clinical Overview Use Cocoa solid, cocoa butter, and chocolate are all rich sources of antioxidants. In one study of normotensive subjects, systolic blood pressure decreased 8. , , , , , , , , , , N-acylethanolamines are compounds found in chocolate that are structurally similar to anandamine, which is similar to the cannabinoid responsible for euphoria from cannabis. Overall, it appears that cocoa and cocoa-rich products may be helpful in achieving or maintaining weight, but further studies are needed. Caffeine content should be restricted during pregnancy. Results of another study demonstrated that daily consumption of a high-flavanol cocoa drink led to a sustained reversal of endothelial dysfunction, reaching a plateau level of improved flow-mediated dilation after 5 days. — Each lotion is made with vitamin E, which is chock-full of antioxidants to help even your skin tone, as well as cocoa and shea butters to hydrate your skin. Check out on selecting high-quality dark chocolate. and various spices and herbs were added, and maize was sometimes used to produce milder flavour. Additionally, a study in senior men showed that eating chocolate was linked to improved overall health and better psychological well-being. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age. ", , Uses and Pharmacology Cocoa has been reported to be a source of natural antioxidants the free radical scavengers that preserve cell membranes, protect DNA, prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol that leads to atherosclerosis, and prevent plaque formation in arterial walls. Flavanol-rich cocoa improves the level of nitric oxide in your blood, which relaxes and dilates your arteries and blood vessels and improves blood flow ,. The Mayan word cacao entered scientific nomenclature in 1753, and the words theo "god" and broma "nectar" or "food" are Latinized Greek. Because endothelial dysfunction has been observed during hyperglycemia, the effects of flavanol-rich dark chocolate on flow-mediated dilation was investigated in 12 healthy volunteers. Cortez described the preparation and use of a beverage called chocalatl, made of the seeds of T. Similar reductions in diastolic blood pressure were noted at 4 weeks 8. It was introduced to Europe by Spanish conquerors in the 16th century and quickly became popular as a health-promoting medicine. Summary The flavanols in cocoa have been shown to have promising anti-cancer properties in test-tube and animal studies, but data from human trials is lacking. Summary Studies reveal that cocoa is rich in flavanols, which lower blood pressure by improving nitric oxide levels and blood vessel function. Puddings: You can add raw cocoa powder not Dutch to homemade puddings like chia breakfast puddings or rice pudding. Adverse Reactions Children consuming large amounts of chocolate and caffeinated beverages may exhibit tics or restlessness. Somewhat paradoxically, cocoa intake, even in the form of chocolate, may help you control your weight. Endothelial and vascular function Populations that consume cocoa routinely excrete more nitric oxide NO metabolites than genetically similar groups with less consumption. , In one study, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between cocoa intake and blood pressure, as well as a 15-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality; the median cocoa intake among users was 2. Ingredients in chocolate may precipitate migraine headaches, and cocoa products may be allergenic. , The likely mechanisms are antioxidant activity; improvement in endothelial function, vascular function, and insulin sensitivity; as well as attenuation of platelet reactivity and reduction in blood pressure. The tree was likely domesticated in the upper Amazon region and then spread northward. Theoretically, the caffeine in cocoa might inhibit dipyridamole-induced vasodilation. Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between the consumption of cocoa and the risk of cardiovascular disease. , Cocoa butter suppositories have been used since the early 1900s to relieve hemorrhoids, and the ointment has been applied to the breasts of nursing women. Flavanols in fruits, vegetables and other foods have attracted a great deal of interest due to their , low toxicity and few adverse side effects. A population study found that people who consumed chocolate more frequently had a lower BMI than people who ate it less often, despite the former group also eating more calories and fat. Subgroup analysis revealed that the reduction was significant only when compared to flavanol-free controls and not low-flavanol controls. However, this number has been deemed too low by other researchers, who claim higher amounts of flavanols are required to see benefits ,. Further studies characterizing the polyphenol content of cocoa products and method of measurement are needed. From the processed cocoa bean comes the fluid paste, or liquor, from which cocoa powder and are made. It found that cocoa produced a small but significant reduction of 2 mmHg in blood pressure. In the Zutphen elderly, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between cocoa intake and blood pressure, as well as a 15-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality; the median cocoa intake among users was 2. At that time, physicians also stated that all that was necessary for breakfast was chocolate, because it yielded good nourishment for the body. Summary Cocoa products are associated with a lower weight, and the addition of cocoa to your diet may help achieve faster weight loss. Though overconsumption of chocolate is certainly not good for blood sugar control, cocoa does, in fact, have some anti-diabetic effects. Cacao is often used to describe the raw material, while cocoa is used to describe the processed products. Despite popular opinion, cocoa in chocolate is not a cause of. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The ripe seed pods are cut from the trees and split open with machetes. However, processing cocoa into chocolate or other products can substantially decrease the polyphenol content. Specially treated cocoa powder, called alkalinized cocoa has improved color, flavor, and dispersability compared with unalkalinized powder. Several studies have explored the protective effects of cocoa against dental cavities and gum disease. In 1847 the English firm of combined , a by-product of the pressing, with chocolate liquor and to produce eating chocolate, and in 1876 of added dried milk to make milk chocolate. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. No effect was seen with white chocolate. Sprinkle over fruit: Cocoa is particularly nice sprinkled over bananas or strawberries. Animal studies using a cocoa-rich diet or cocoa extracts have seen positive results in reducing breast, pancreatic, prostate, liver and colon cancer, as well as leukemia. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Gijsbers L, Schalkwijk C, Kromhout D, Hollman PC. Summary Cocoa extract has demonstrated some anti-asthmatic properties in animal studies. Blood pressure Consumption of chocolate bars resulted in reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Cocoa is one of the richest sources of polyphenols. Cocoa powder contains about 1. Some studies have shown that a higher intake of flavanols, including those from cocoa, can result in a lower risk of type 2 diabetes ,. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower after dark chocolate ingestion. Cocoa may increase the risk of toxicity or adverse reactions of clozapine because caffeine inhibits clozapine metabolism. Additionally, a review of human studies showed that eating flavanol-rich dark chocolate or cocoa can reduce , control and reduce inflammation in diabetic and nondiabetic people. Here are 11 health and nutrition benefits of cocoa powder. The exact amount of cocoa you should include in your diet to achieve health benefits is not clear. — But the usual appearances at Miller Park by Mrs. 7 mm Hg lower, and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 2. One review analyzed 35 experiments that provided patients with 0. Although Spain guarded the secret of its xocoatl beverage for almost 100 years, it reached Italy in 1606 and became popular in with the of the Spanish princess to in 1660. In a study of smokers, the ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink increased the circulating pool of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio HR for CHD was 0. Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors Research suggests that the flavonoid constituents, in particular flavanols, in cocoa may be beneficial in cardiovascular disease. Insulin sensitivity In a crossover study, 15 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume 100 g of dark chocolate or 90 g of white chocolate for 15 days after a 7-day, cocoa-free, run-in phase. The pharmacologically active ingredients of cocoa seeds include amines, alkaloids, fatty acids, polyphenols including flavonoids , tyramine, magnesium, phenylethylamine, and N-acylethanolamines. A meta-analysis looking specifically at chocolate consumption on heart failure risk identified 5 studies that met eligibility criteria; all were high quality. Scientific Family• The following drugs may increase the effects of caffeine in cocoa because they decrease the metabolism or clearance of caffeine: cimetidine disulfiram estrogens fluconazole mexiletine oral contraceptives and quinolone antibiotics. Cocoa has the highest concentration of flavanols out of all foods per weight and can significantly contribute to their amount in your diet. Summary Cocoa is rich in polyphenols, which have significant health benefits, including reduced inflammation and improved cholesterol levels. — These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'cocoa. These results suggest that frequent consumption of small amounts of cocoa-rich chocolate may have protective. Mood disorders Ingredients in chocolate with potential psychoactive properties have been identified, including the biogenic stimulant amines caffeine, theobromine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine; however, their concentrations are likely to be too low to have an effect. Summary Cocoa can improve blood flow and reduce cholesterol. Test-tube studies on components of cocoa have found that they have antioxidant effects, protect cells against damage from reactive molecules, fight inflammation, inhibit cell growth, induce cancer cell death and help prevent the spread of cancer cells ,. It was widely more than 3,000 years ago by the , , and peoples, who prepared a beverage from the bean sometimes using it as a ceremonial drink and also used the bean as a currency. By Hotel Type• Increases observed in circulating nitrite, but not in circulating nitrate, paralleled the observed flow-mediated dilation augmentation. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Two Swedish studies found that chocolate intake is linked to a lower rate of heart failure at doses of up to one serving of 0. , A standard chocolate bar 40 to 50 g contains theobromine 86 to 240 mg and caffeine 9 to 31 mg. — Bloom cocoa in hot water to bring out the chocolate flavor in a brownie recipe. , Low intakes of magnesium may be responsible for some cardiovascular alterations as well as renal, GI, neurological, and muscular disorders. However, other studies have found that chocolate consumption increases weight. It is also used by confectioners as coating for candy bars and boxed or bulk chocolates, by bakery product manufacturers and bakers as coating for many types of and , and by companies as coating for frozen novelties. 5 grams of high-flavanol cocoa powder or 0. While the results of these early studies are promising, more research on the effect of cocoa on mood and depression is needed before more definite conclusions can be drawn. Cocoa bean processing Harvesting of cocoa beans can proceed all year, but the bulk of the crop is gathered in two flush periods occurring from October to February and from May to. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index was also higher after dark chocolate ingestion. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. In addition to lowering blood pressure, it appears that cocoa has other properties that may reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke , ,. As a result, new products will need to be developed to experience the oral health benefits of cocoa. Magnesium deficiency In rats, the magnesium contained in cocoa has been shown to prevent and correct chronic magnesium deficiency. This effect was first noted in the cocoa-drinking island people of Central America, who had much lower blood pressure than their non-cocoa-drinking mainland relatives. Its consumption as a beverage was continued by the Mayas 250 AD to 900 AD. Theophylline helps your lungs dilate, your airways relax and decreases inflammation. These compounds may not exert their effect by binding with the tetrahydrocannabinol receptors, but by inhibiting breakdown of endogenously produced anandamine, thus prolonging a "natural high. Cocoa is also a dietary source of resveratrol. When mostly healthy, normotensive subjects received daily flavanol-rich 30 to 1,080 mg , low-flavanol 6. A study comparing the effects of dark and white chocolate on flow-mediated dilation found that dark chocolate improved flow-mediated dilation after 2 hours compared with baseline, with the effect lasting about 8 hours. Theobromine, when ingested in the form of a large chocolate bar, did not cause any acute hemodynamic or electrophysiologic cardiac changes in young, healthy adults. After multivariate analysis, a borderline inverse relationship between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease mortality was observed. Further studies characterizing the polyphenol content of cocoa products and method of measurement are needed. Granola bars: Add cocoa to your favorite granola bar mixture to bump up the health benefits and enrich the flavor. Resveratrol in medicinal chemistry: a critical review of its pharmacokinetics, drug-delivery, and membrane interactions. Cancer Data suggest that flavonoid-rich food contributes to cancer prevention. The caffeine in cocoa may have an additive effect with other caffeine-containing products. However, modern research has revealed that it does indeed contain important compounds that can benefit your health. It has been demonstrated that thoughts of chocolate are overpowering and prey on the mind. In the 1600s, it was argued that "chocolate" should be considered a medicine because it changed a patient's health. During the 20th century especially after the 1930s , the consumption of chocolate shifted from medicinal to confectionery. , Interactions Due to cocoa's caffeine content, many interactions are theoretically possible if large doses are consumed. 8 mm Hg lower than in the cocoa-free controls. They were then crossed over after another 7-day, cocoa-free, period. In the Rules for Regulating Salem Hospital published in 1773, chocolate was listed under "patient's diet. took cocoa beans to after his fourth voyage in 1502, and the Spanish conquistadores, arriving in in 1519, were introduced to a chocolate beverage by the Aztec. In Aztec society, cocoa beans were used to pay annual taxes to the Emperor. Because the study population was not hypertensive, the results are notable. Summary Cocoa can promote healthy teeth by fighting bacteria that cause cavities, though this does not apply to sugar-containing products. , , Dark chocolate and cocoa inhibit LDL oxidation and increase high-density lipoprotein HDL -cholesterol concentrations. History The Olmecs, one of the first civilizations of the Americas 1500 BC to 400 BC are credited with the first use of cocoa. Cocoa butter is also used as a suppository and ointment base, as an emollient, and as an ingredient in various topical cosmetic preparations. Further studies suggest that daily intake of cocoa flavanols can improve mental performance in people with and without mental impairments , ,. Use of large amounts of cocoa with monoamine oxidase inhibitors may precipitate a hypertensive crisis because of cocoa's tyramine content. However, the results of these studies cannot be extrapolated to patients with any condition s or disease s , nor to the effects of chronic chocolate consumption. Cocoa Scientific Name s : Theobroma cacao L. Avoid dosages greater than those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven. David Monniaux The cocoa is the of the cacao tree Theobroma cacao , a tropical to the equatorial regions of the Americas. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter are often mixed with chocolate liquor ground cacao seeds , sugar, milk, and other flavors. Although the sample sizes were large, limitations included no discernment between milk or dark chocolate, confounders associated with observational study design, and assessment of chocolate consumption only at baseline. Questionnaires filled out by study subjects have shown that there is a weakness for chocolate in individuals who are under emotional stress, bored, upset, or feeling down. Chocolate is sold directly to the consumer as solid bars of eating chocolate, as packaged cocoa, and as baking chocolate. Test-tube studies indicate that cocoa flavanols can slow down carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut, improve insulin secretion, reduce inflammation and stimulate the uptake of sugar out of the blood into the muscle. Recipes using cacao were recorded in 15th century Mayan codices. , Most studies have used dark chocolate in order to avoid a possible milk interference; however, one study using milk chocolate found positive effects on blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, and markers of oxidative stress in young men who exercised. Conflicting results were demonstrated when chocolate was tested as an initiator of migraine headaches. Concomitant use of phenylpropanolamine and cocoa may cause an additive increase in blood pressure because of the caffeine content. In another study 34,489 cardiovascular disease-free postmenopausal women were followed for 16 years. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome who experience reflux esophageal symptoms should eliminate foods that decrease lower esophageal sphincter pressure, such as chocolate and cocoa-containing products, from their diets. A meta-analysis was performed of 5 randomized, controlled studies involving 173 subjects. Cocoa, both in its powdered form and in the form of dark chocolate, may be able to help lower blood pressure. Clinical data Multiple epidemiological studies have found an inverse association between the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinical data Theobromine has activity similar to that seen with caffeine ie, increases in energy, motivation to work, and alertness. Cocoa has captivated the world for thousands of years and is a big part of modern cuisine in the form of chocolate. Near Landmarks• However, processing and heating cocoa can cause it to lose its beneficial properties. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. The sum weight of chocolate-containing food items ie, chocolate squares, chocolate snack bars, hot chocolate powder was measured using a food frequency questionnaire; flavonoid and cocoa content were not measured. However, there are no significant human studies, and the majority of cocoa products consumed by humans also. Adverse Reactions Caffeine from the ingestion of large amounts of chocolate, along with 2 to 4 caffeinated beverages, was correlated with the appearance of tics in 2 children. No association was found in the dose-response meta-analysis, the stratified analysis by gender, or the categorical analysis between the highest vs the lowest category of chocolate consumed. When compared with that of the lowest tertile, the adjusted relative risk for men in the highest tertile was 0. These properties have been linked to a lower risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke , , ,. The fruits are large and football shaped, with quarter-sized seeds referred to as cocoa beans. Yet, many of them did not differentiate between the type of chocolate consumed — white and milk chocolate do not have the same benefits as dark ,. Today, cocoa is most famous for its role in chocolate production. , Cacahuatl cacao beans, resembling almonds, have been used as currency.。 。

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11 Health and Nutrition Benefits of Cocoa Powder

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